Thursday, September 30, 2010

Abbeville Opera House

100 Court Square
Abbeville, South Carolina

Ruth, it's these fellows are fooling you! It's they who keep your head set on the wages of sin, and all that rubbish. What have we got to do with suffering and sacrifice? That may be the law for some, and I've tried hard to see it as outlaw, and I thought I had succeeded. But I haven't! Our law is joy, and selfishness; the curve of your shoulder and the light on your hair as you sit there says that as plain as preaching.
---William Vaughn Moody, The Great Divide, 1906, the first play to open the Abbeville Opera House.

I’ve discovered, with much joy, that the state of South Carolina, like Virginia, has placed all of its National Register nomination forms online! Therefore, research for this state has been made much easier. Since I haven’t written much yet on South Carolina, I’ve been focusing on it this week.

As you may notice in my brief bio at the right of this text, I’m an actor first. I’ve been performing onstage since the ripe old age of four; starting as a singer and in musicals and working my way up to earning a theatre degree from Columbus State University in Columbus, Georgia. Following college, I have continued to play various roles both on and off stage including helping to found a Shakespeare company and editing and co-writing a history of the Springer Opera House in Columbus, as well. The Springer is haunted, of course, and I do plan on writing about it in the future. So, theatres, especially haunted theatres, combine two of the great passions in my life. What could be better?

Abbeville Opera House, 2004. This public domain image is by
K. Armstrong of National Scenic Byways Online.

Theatre has been a part of American culture from quite early on. Native Americans included theatre and dance as a part of their rituals. Many of the earliest European settlers shunned such cultural extravagances as being sinful—“they who keep your head set on the wages of sin”-- but theatre took hold in the mid-18th century and did not let go. Travelling companies formed and trooped through the frontier bringing Shakespeare with them to people starved for any entertainment. Towards the end of the 19th century, theatres were springing up in any city that wished to call itself such. These theatres were the stopping places for thousands of performers travelling “the Road.”

Legend has it that Abbeville, South Carolina was just a nightly stopping place for major companies on the Road. When the citizens of Abbeville realized the benefits of having these companies perform in town, they built a theatre to accommodate performances. On an early evening in October of 1908 (sources differ as to the exact date), the opera house opened with a performance of the melodramatic The Great Divide. The local paper, The Abbeville Medium, raved that “the show was far above the average show that hails this way.” Later that month, Thomas F. Dixon’s controversial play, The Clansman, appeared. The play caused riots and government officials in some towns had prevented performances due to its “sensitive” subject matter: the Ku Klux Klan, but the Medium described the play as being in no “sense offensive, as we thought it would be.” Another popular show of the era that played the Abbeville Opera House was one of the stage adaptations of Lew Wallace’s classic, Ben Hur. The story of a wealthy Jewish prince whose life is turned upside down by a minor accident, Ben Hur ends with the title character finding redemption after encountering Christ. Broadway producers turned the show into a family spectacle that included an actual chariot race with live horses onstage running on a treadmill. The show was a nationwide hit.

The Opera House also hosted popular minstrel shows, vaudeville (quickly becoming the most popular form of entertainment) and even the Ziegfeld Follies all straight from the boards of the Great White Way in distant New York City. These performances were gala events with the citizens turning out in their best finery. The Southern Railroad would even run special trains to and from the surrounding towns to see names like the great female comedienne, Fannie Brice or the Great Jimmy Durante. Certainly, with the lack of theatre in small towns now, it’s hard to imagine even a small town seeing many of the greatest performers of the day in a live performance.

Starting just two years after it opened, the Abbeville Opera House’s lights were dimmed to the flicker of the movie projector. For nearly the next two decade, film would slowly begin to edge out live performances. According to the Opera House website, nearly 3,250 films played in the Opera House between 1914 and 1930. By 1930, the Road was dying and film had begun to dominate American entertainment. The grande dames that were originally built to accommodate live theatre performances were slowly closed and demolished towards the middle of the 20th century. At this time, as the Abbeville Opera House started to take its final curtain call, George Settles formed a group, Abbeville Community Theater (the group performing in the Opera House is now the Opera House Players, though I’m not sure what relation they have to Settles’ group) to preserve live theatre in the area. Plans were made to restore the grand lady and fifty years after the house had opened so dramatically, the restored theatre was reopened with a production of Thornton Wilder’s Our Town.

The theatre world is rife with superstition and nearly every theatre is known to harbor a ghost and the Abbeville Opera House is no exception. Rumors of ghosts spread quite early. Local Larry Pursley recalls in his book, Abbeville, SC: A Backward Glance, that he was told as a child “a man had been hanged out of the small window near the top of the back of the Opera House.” He states that with his knowledge of local history now, he knows the story is ludicrous and completely untrue. But, other stories, however, have a ring of truth.

Theatre company members have had many experiences in this 102 year old theatre. Most of the experiences seem to center on the second balcony. This balcony, which in some theaters might be referred to as “the nose-bleed section,”was originally intended for non-white patrons during the era of segregation. Often these seats were the worst and the most uncomfortable and the entrance to this balcony was accessed through a different entrance so the two groups of patrons wouldn’t mix. The balcony, nowadays, is reserved for the “techies” or theatre technicians who run lights and sound and a ghost or two.

When the theatre was restored the second balcony was cleared except for a single chair. This single chair, known as the “ghost chair,” is untouched. Jerry Solomon, a set builder, remarked in a 2005 article in the Columbia, South Carolina paper, The State, that would not move or even touch the chair for fear that something would go wrong during the show. “The curtain won’t go down; lights will go out.” This sentiment has been expressed by many associated with the theatre. Theatre people, especially actors who are bound by routine during a show, are especially superstitious, but that doesn’t explain the strange reports coming out of the theatre.

One actor glancing up the second balcony during a show saw a woman standing there staring down at the stage. Cheralyn Lambeth, author of Haunted Theaters of the Carolinas, states an actor saw a woman in period dress applauding in the same balcony during the curtain call of a show. Other actors report the sound a lone applause coming from the same balcony while actors and techies have described odd sounds coming from the balcony and the catwalks above the stage during shows.

Two legends exist to explain this phenomena. One speaks of an actress with a touring company who died while or shortly after performing in the Opera House possibly during the 1920s. The other mentions an African-American man who fell in love with a white actress and was murdered in the balcony by a racist mob when the relationship was discovered. Whatever the cause, there is something going on in the theater.

Cheri Standridge, director of the Greater Abbeville Chamber of Commerce, mentions that she accompanied a psychic on a walk of the Opera House. The woman encountered a number of spirits including a family sitting in one of the boxes and a man in a military uniform. One Georgia ghost-hunting team has investigated the Opera House at least four times, but has not published its results. Of course the number of times says something: if they hadn’t found anything, they would not have investigated it numerous times.

The Opera House continues to stage shows that are loudly applauded by the living and even some of the dead.

Abbeville Opera House. History. Accessed 28 September 2010.
Bordsen, John. “A Boo’s Who of Ghosts.” The State. 30 October 2005.
Fant, Mrs. James. National Register of Historic Places Nomination form
    for the Abbeville Opera House. Entered in the National Register
     1 July 1970.
Jones, Jennifer. “Abbeville Opera House Known for ‘ghost chair.’”
     Anderson (SC) Independent-Mail. 23 October 2005.
Kyle, F. Clason. Lewis Powell, IV, editor. In Order of Appearance:
     135 Years on America’s Most Celebrated Stage. Columbus, GA:
     Communicorp, 2006.
Lambeth, Cheralyn. Haunted Theaters of the Carolinas. Atglen, PA:
     Schiffer, 2009.
Pursely, Larry. Abbeville, SC: A Backward Glance. Alpharetta, GA:
     WH Wolfe and Associates, 1993.
Ware, Lowery. Old Abbeville: Scenes of the Past of a Town Where Old
     Time Things Are Not Forgotten. Columbia, SC: SCMAR, 1992.

Monday, September 27, 2010

Haunted College and University Buildings of the South (Photographic Essay)

N.B. This article is currently being revamped and rewritten. As I cover the locations in this article, I'll remove the listings. These are the new versions for Alabama and Florida and Georgia.

I started this entry with the idea that it would be something I could quickly put together, but nothing in my life is quick and easy, so this turned into something far more complicated, though I hope it is enjoyable for my readers. My primary source for this entry is Daniel Barefoot's Haunted Halls of Ivy: Ghosts of Southern Colleges and Universities, which I used heavily is the entry on the University of Tennessee campus as well. These images have come primarily from the Library of Congress, but I have supplemented these with images from Wikipedia as well which usually utilizes images in the public domain or with Creative Commons licenses.

I initially wanted to provide two buildings per state, but lack of usable images has prevented that, nor could I find any images for West Virginia.

Old Morrison Hall
Transylvania University
Lexington, Kentucky
Old Morrison serves as the centerpiece of the Transylvania University
campus and its most enduring legend. In 1819, brilliant scientist Constantine
Rafinesque joined the school's faculty but was dismissed before the end of
his tenure. As he left, Rafinesque pronounced a curse upon the University. The
scientist returned to Philadelphia where he died a pauper some years later, but
leaving a brilliant legacy of scholarly work. Old Morrison burned after Rafinesque's
dismissal but miraculously his possessions were not scorched. Thus began the rumors
of a curse which would be revisited with every tragic incident on campus. In 1924,
Rafinesque's remains were brought to the building and enshrined in a special
crypt in order to pay homage to his brilliance. Still odd occurrences and tragedies
occur in the building.  Photograph by Lester Jones, 1940, for the Historic American
Buildings Survey (HABS). Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints
and Photographs Division.

Seminary Building
Jefferson Community and Technical College
Louisville, Kentucky

Built in 1903 as the Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, the
building was restored and became a part of Jefferson Community College in 1968.
Shortly after, a ghost, presumed to be that of Lucy Stites Barret, began to stir.
Mrs. Barret was the wife of James Rankin Barret who constructed this building
and dedicated it to his wife with an inscription on the fireplace in the library. Mysterious
letters have appeared inscribed with LSB, Mrs. Barret's initials and purporting to be
from the ghost. In addition, disembodied footsteps, flickering lights and a hazy
apparition of a female have been reported.  Photograph for the Historic
American Buildings Survey (HABS). Courtesy of the Library of
Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

Mount St. Mary's University
Emmitsburg, Maryland
An 1863 photograph of unidentified buildings on the campus of
Mount St. Mary's University, the oldest independent Catholic college in
the United States. Father Simon Brute has been seen walking the campus in flowing
black robes. Courtesy of the Library
of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

The Lyceum
University of Mississippi
Oxford, Mississippi
The Lyceum is the heart of the campus of the University
of Mississippi and appears on the University logo. Staff and
students often hear odd sounds in this landmark structure.
During the Civil War, this building served as a hospital for
soldiers wounded in the Battle of Shiloh. Perhaps their spirits
still remain. Photograph for the Historic American Buildings Survey
(HABS). Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and
Photographs Division.

Callaway Hall
Mississippi University for Women
Columbus, Mississippi
An early 20th century postcard showing the clocktower of Callaway Hall. It was
this same clocktower where a young nurse hung herself during the Civil War when
her fiancee was killed. Her revenant is still heard crying late at night and has appeared
to terrified students and staff. Courtesy of the Mississippi Department of Archives
and History, Cooper Postcard Collection.

McDowell Columns Building
Chowan University
Murfreesboro, North Carolina
The McDowell Columns Building is the centerpiece of this Baptist school.
It was here that a young woman died, possibly of a broken heart, after her
fiancee was killed in battle during the Civil War. She returns to the building as
The Brown Lady. Her spirit appeared shortly after her death and has continued
to appear. In the 1990s, an appearance of The Brown Lady stopped a man
from attacking a coed. When the attacker saw the ghost, he ran away terrified.
Photograph by Thomas T. Waterman, 1940, for the Historic American Buildings
Survey (HABS). Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

Old Playmakers Theatre (Smith Hall)
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Built in 1851 as Smith Hall and now a National Historic Landmark,
the Old Playmakers Theatre has served a variety of functions on campus.
In 1925, the building was converted to use as a theater. According to
Cheralyn Lambeth in her book, Haunted Theaters of the Carolinas,
the theater may be haunted by the ghost of Frederick Koch, founder
of the Carolina Playmakers. Photograph by Wikipedia user, Caroline Culler.

Tillman Hall
Winthrop University
Rock Hill, South Carolina
This dramatic Romanesque edifice is named for Benjamin Tillman,
the South Carolina governor and U.S. Senator who pushed for the
creation of Winthrop University. "Pitchfork Ben," as he was known,
after a colorful remark he made at the expense of President Grover Cleveland,
is also believed to be the spirit that haunts this hall.  His portrait, hanging in the lobby,
has inspired nightmares for some staff working in the building but worse
are the odd noises emanating from the abandoned fourth floor at night. Photograph by
Jack Boucher, 1986, for the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS). Courtesy of
the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

Belmont Mansion
Belmont University
Nashville, Tennessee

Built by Adelicia Acklen, who was left with a fortune after the
death of her first husband, Belmont Mansion was built and furnished
as the most sumptuous house in the South. Upon Acklen's death,
the Mansion became the home of a women's school which developed
into Belmont University. The wraith of Adelicia Acklen still roams
the rooms of her precious manse, with visitors hearing footsteps,
feeling uneasy in certain locations and even seeing her spirit on occasion.
Photograph by Lester Jones, 1940, for the Historic American Buildings
Survey (HABS). Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints and
Photographs Division.

Old Barracks
Virginia Military Institute
Lexington, Virginia
The National Landmark Old Barracks at VMI is said to be
haunted by a nonhuman entity known as "The Yellow Peril."
The hideous, yellow face with a bleeding wound has been
seen by terrified cadets peering through the windows of this
building. Photograph, 1968, for the Historic American Buildings
Survey (HABS). Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints
and Photographs Division.

Christopher Wren Building
College of William and Mary
Williamsburg, Virginia
The oldest university building in continuous use in the U.S.
and located at the heart of one of the oldest universities, the
Christopher Wren Building has a prestigious pedigree and ghosts
as well. Completed around 1699, this building has seen three fires
and was used as a hospital during the American Revolution. Perhaps
the spirits of the soldiers who died there as well as the students who've
studied there over the centuries return to create the supernatural
racket that is sometimes heard in this building. Photograph, 2008, by
Wikipedia user Jrcla2.

Healy Hall
Georgetown University
Georgetown, Washington, D.C.
With the high Victorian architecture of Healy Hall, it's not hard
to imagine it being troubled by ghosts. Its immense size has given
rise to the legend of it having a closed fifth floor from which mysterious
noises emanate. Two other legends tell of young Jesuits dying in this
building, leaving their spirits behind to walk the halls. Photograph, 1969  by
Jack E. Boucher for the Historic American Buildings
Survey (HABS). Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints
and Photographs Division.

Alexander, Sheridan. "Hauntings at Georgetown University's Healy Hall:
     Washington DC ghost stories and haunted places."
     1 October, 2009.
Barefoot, Daniel W. Haunted Halls of Ivy: Ghosts of Southern Colleges and
     Universities. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair, 2004.
Gallegher, Trish. Ghosts and Haunted Houses of Maryland. Centreville, MD:
     Tidewater, 1988.
Lambeth, Cheralyn. Haunted Theaters of the Carolinas. Atglen, PA: Schiffer,
Mount St. Mary's University. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Accessed 26
     September 2010.
Parker, Robert W. Haunted Louisville: History and Hauntings from the Derby
     City. Decatur, IL: Whitechapel Press, 2007.

Saturday, September 25, 2010

University of Tennessee Campus

Knoxville, Tennessee

Ghosts rarely receive official notice. The National Park Service, for instance, usually states that park service properties, including some of the bloodiest battlefields of the Revolution and the Civil War, are not haunted. Therefore, it’s interesting when an official organization or agency acknowledges a haunting. Such is the case of the myriad ghosts on the campus of the University of Tennessee in Knoxville. Not only does the University website host a page detailing its ghosts, but the website of the Tennessee State Archives includes information not only on the UT campus, but other haunting in the state. The campus’ ghosts span the range of history of the region from Native Americans whose burial grounds were possibly disturbed to Civil War soldiers who fought and died in battle on the campus to students who recently committed suicide.

The history of the university begins in 1794, shortly before Tennessee became a state, when it was founded as Blount College. The state legislature changed the school’s name to East Tennessee College in 1807 and it became a university in 1840. The school was founded initially on Gay Street in Knoxville, but the location was moved to a large site near town with a hill that offered a commanding view of the city. This hill, now known affectionately as “The Hill” became a main feature of the campus and one that the Pride of the Southland Band plays homage to on their march to the stadium on game days. This same hill, during the Civil War, became Fort Byington which looked northwest to a nearby hill with a large entrenchment called Fort Sanders (originally it was Fort Loudon but the name was changed when Brigadier General William P. Sanders was killed in action nearby).

A map of the defenses of Knoxville from the US War Department's
 The War of the Rebellion: a Compilation of the Official Records of
the Union and Confederate Armies, published between 1880 and 1901.
Note the defensive line that cuts across the present campus
west of the city. Fort Byington was constructed at the top
of what is now "The Hill."
Much of Eastern Tennessee did not owe much allegiance to the Confederacy. The area was not sprinkled with the slave-operated plantations that dotted the rest of the South and Union forces found little resistance when they moved in to occupy in 1862. When General James Longstreet led his Confederate forces to recapture Knoxville, they met with the forces of General Ambrose Burnside who had created a line just west of what was the university campus at that time. This line, stretching from the Tennessee River to Fort Sanders then around the northern edge of Knoxville to the fortified eastern side of the city, held the Confederates as they laid siege.
Before dawn on the morning of November 29, 1863, Confederate forces charged up the hill to Fort Sanders losing over 800 soldiers (about 120 were actually killed) in the twenty minute battle that followed. Many of these casualties occurred when the Confederates tripped on telegraph wire that had been strung between stumps around the fort. The ditch that surrounded the fort also claimed many. Longstreet’s gamble in Eastern Tennessee did not succeed and Burnside held Knoxville until the conclusion of the war.
A later depiction of the Battle of Fort Sanders from a lithograph
published by Kurz and Allison, 1891. Courtesy of the Library of Congress,
Prints and Photographs Division.
Having been laid waste by the Siege of Knoxville, the University reopened after the war and began rebuilding. The state legislature named the University a land-grant university under the terms of the Morrill Act and renamed it the University of Tennessee when it reopened in 1868. The University has grown in size and respectability since and it consistently ranks among the top universities in the nation.
Besides the two online sources I mentioned previously, there are a few published sources on the ghosts of the University of Tennessee as well. Perhaps the best source is Daniel Barefoot’s Haunted Halls of Ivy: Ghosts of Southern Colleges and Universities. Barefoot, a North Carolina lawyer and former member of the state legislature, has written five books on ghosts and is an authority on North Carolina’s folklore. Alan Brown, professor of English at the University of Western Alabama and another noted author on Southern ghosts, includes the ghost of the Hoskins Library in his Stories from the Haunted Southland. Charles Edwin Price, who has written heavily on Tennessee folklore, also includes the University in his book, Mysterious Knoxville, though I don’t have this book in my library, yet.
Alumni Memorial Building

Fanny's first home, the Old Science Hall,
razed in 1979. Photograph originally published
by the Detroit Publishing Company. Courtesy
of the Library of Congress,Prints and
Photographs Division.
Ghosts sometimes may travel when the buildings they inhabit are demolished or destroyed. This is believed to have been the case for the Alumni Memorial Building. When the Old Science Hall was razed in 1979, Fanny, the building’s ghost, appears to have travelled to its replacement.

Originally, Fanny’s ghost was at home in the auditorium of the Science building where plays were performed, lectures given and chapel held. She had dreams of being a Hollywood actress and had supposedly gotten a contract with a studio but before she could head off to California, she contracted tuberculosis and died. Her spirit is said to appear during theatrical rehearsals in the Alumni Memorial, though no source provides specific descriptions of her activity or sightings of her.

General Counseling Center
According to Barefoot, the only author to mention this location, the General Counseling Center was located in an old house on Lake Avenue. The house, once owned by the Dean of Education, Dr. John A. Thackston, was willed to the University on his death. Barefoot states that the ghost of Dr. Thackston has been encountered in the house and blamed for doors opening and closing by themselves. After consulting the campus map, it appears that the counseling center has been moved as the building on the map is not on Lake Avenue.
Hess Hall
Blood-curdling screams are heard in Hess Hall which, according to legend, are from a student who committed suicide in the 1970s.
The Hill
The heart of the University, “The Hill,” is crowned by Ayres Hall with the old South College building nearby. The rest of the hill has been left as green space where two specters have been encountered: a large creature and the spirit of a man.

Ayres Hall which now crowns The
Hill. It is around this building that a
spectral creature and a man from
the 1930s are seen. Photograph by
Wikipedia user Gragghia.
 The creature encountered here has been described in varying ways. Some descriptions have indicated it is possibly canine, while others describe it as feline. Barefoot, Brown as well as the website, Ghosts and Spirits of Tennessee, describe a phantom wolf that is heard howling. The University website differs a bit and describes the creature as “a barghest (very large dog with huge claws and teeth).” In Rosemary Ellen Guiley’s masterful Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits, Guiley states that the barghest is a product of English folklore and is a “spectral hound that exists in Cornwall and northern England.” She continues that it is a death omen manifesting as a large dog or bear and making a shrieking sound.
It’s interesting that the barghest is possibly a death omen as the feline description of this creature usually uses the term “wampus cat” which is also a death omen. Alan Brown in his Haunted Tennessee provides the legend of the wampus cat and an aside about the University’s hill creature. The wampus cat is found in Cherokee legend where a young woman with a desire to hunt with the men cloaked herself with a mountain lion skin and followed them. After being undetected most of the day, she bumped into a tree branch and was discovered. The men, angered by this discovery, consulted with a shaman who bound the woman to the lion skin forever.
Brown recounts a modern encounter with this creature on The Hill. In the early part of this decade a young female student had moved into an apartment at the intersection of 16th Street and Cumberland Avenue quite near The Hill. One evening, she glanced out the window and saw a “human-size, cat-like being that was walking on its hind legs.” He also mentions that the creature had glowing eyes, a characteristic also noted on the University website.
As for the male spirit seen on The Hill, the University website describes him as:
The apparition of a young man wearing a Celluloid collar and bowler hat sometimes joins students in the evenings as they walk up the steps to the top of The Hill. He is generally seen walking with his head bent and his hands behind his back -- and he does not acknowledge those with whom he walks.
The legend told is that man is a student from the 1930s who committed suicide after his girlfriend left him to marry someone else. The site notes that the spirit’s bowler hat hides a gaping head wound.
Hoskins Library
Built in 1931 with additions dating from the 1960s, the Hoskins Library is possibly home to two spirits. One spirit may be a former library director while the other is a bit more well-known, even being given the odd name “Evening Primrose.” Ms. Primrose, the female waif, is reported to play with the elevators, knock books off shelves and she may also be responsible for the smell of food cooking. Alan Brown quotes the director of the Rare Books and Manuscripts Division who had smelled food cooking in the basement stacks of the library, certainly a place where cooking food would be wholly out of place. The identity of Evening Primrose is unknown, but the University website opines that she may be the ghost of “a poor graduate student who secretly lived -- and died -- in the Library while researching her dissertation.
McClung Museum
The Frank D. McClung Museum, with collections covering anthropology, the arts, and natural history, opened in 1963. Two sources, Daniel Barefoot and John Norris Brown (author of the Ghosts and Spirits of Tennessee website) assert that this structure was built atop Native American burial mounds and their spirits now roam its halls.
Perkins Hall

Blount Hall, replaced by Perkins Hall in 1979. Photograph originally published by the
Detroit Publishing Company. Courtesy of the
Library of Congress,Prints and
Photographs Division.
 Home to parts of the Engineering Department, Perkins Hall was built near the site of Barbara Blount Hall which was demolished in 1979. When the foundation for Blount Hall was being dug in 1900, graves of soldiers were discovered which were then reinterred in the nearby National Cemetery. The spirits of these soldiers was said to roam the corridors of Blount Hall. These soldiers possibly relocated to the green space next to Perkins when Blount Hall was razed. The University website reports that eight Union soldiers are sometimes seen conferring among each other.
Reese Hall
One of the mid-20th century dormitories, Reese Hall, like the McClung Museum, may also have been built atop Native American graves as well as an early 19th century cemetery. John Norris Brown states that early maps indicate this site as the location of a cemetery, yet records do not indicate the graves were moved. Reports of shadow people--dark, shadowy figures—have come from students in and around this building.
Strong Hall
Of the haunting on the UT campus, Strong Hall is perhaps the best documented. The original core of the building opened in 1925 with five wings, each named for the first women to graduate from UT, being added in 1939. Strong Hall was built as a women’s dormitory with a sizable gift from financier and alumnus Benjamin Rush Strong on the site of his grandparent’s home. The gift was granted with the stipulation that it be used to construct a women’s dormitory named for his mother, Sophronia Strong and that the site would also include a flower garden. The building has served as a women’s dormitory until 2008 when the last female student passed through its rooms. The building is slated to be remodeled into instructional and laboratory space for the Department of Anthropology.
One wonders as to what “Sophie,” the structure’s resident ghost, may think of this decision. After all, her son’s gift included the stipulation that the building always house female students. These same female students have told stories for decades of a stern female spirit that would appear to stem heated arguments and confrontations. The antics of Sophie, who may possibly be Sophronia Strong, included more lively things such as locking girls out of their rooms and appearances in the mirrors of the bathroom around the time of her birthday.
Tyson Alumni Center

Acquired by the University in 1954, the Tyson House was owned by General Lawrence Tyson, a World War I General and U.S. Senator and his wife Betty. When the house was purchased, the University agreed to maintain the back yard grave of the Tyson’s beloved dog, Bonita (or Benita, sources differ). Bonita still appears in the house as well as the shades of her owners, the Tysons. It is said that Bonita is still heard howling at night, or is this the barghest or wampus cat? With the numerous spirits of the University of Tennessee, it could possibly be all three.
Allen, Angela. “Strong Hall’s ghostly caretaker continues to entertain.”
     Tennessee Journalist. 20 October 2008.
Barefoot, Daniel W. Haunted Halls of Ivy: Ghosts of Southern Colleges
     and Universities. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair, 2004.
Battle of Fort Sanders.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed
     25 September 2010.
Brown, Alan. Haunted Tennessee: Ghosts and Strange Phenomena of the
     Volunteer State. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 2009.
Brown, Alan. Stories from the Haunted South. Jackson, MS: University
     Press of Mississippi. 2004.
Brown, John Norris. “University of Tennessee.” Ghosts and Spirits
     of Tennessee. Accessed 20 September 2010.
Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. The Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits.
     NYC: Checkmark, 1992.
Knoxville Campaign.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
     Accessed 25 September  2010.
Lawrence Tyson.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed
     25 September 2010.
Shearer, John. “Last day of use as a women’s dorm is at hand
     for historic UT building.”Knoxville News. 8 May 2008.
Tennessee State Library and Archives. Ghosts. Accessed 20
     September 2010.
University of Tennessee. Ghost Stories: Is our campus haunted?”
     Accessed 20 September 2010.
University of Tennessee.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed
     25 September 2010.

Sunday, September 19, 2010

Haunted Milledgeville, Georgia (Photographs)

As my first blogging trip, I've headed to Milledgeville, Georgia to explore some of its haunted past. Milledgeville was established in Middle Georgia by an act of the state legislature in 1803. The city was laid out as a seat of government for the state based on the designs for Savannah and Washington, DC. The state government was moved from Louisville in 1807 to the newly built and unfinished statehouse in the center of Statehouse Square. By 1814, the once rough and tumble town had grown into a respectable city that attracted wealth and prosperity. The new capital attracted skilled architects who created grand homes and government buildings including a state penitentiary, mental asylum and an institute of higher learning, Oglethorpe University.

 In January of 1861, the city's illustrious rise to prominence entered its twilight when a convention of delegates passed the Ordinance of Secession and officially joined the Confederate States of America. The city erupted in joy but on a fall day three years later, Union General William Tecumseh Sherman would enter the city accompanied by some 30,000 troops who would pillage and ransack it before leaving a few days later on their March to the Sea. The ruined capital was dealt a harsher blow when the state capital was moved to Atlanta in 1868.

The city remained provincial but worked to provide educational resources for the state. While Oglethorpe University during the Civil War and closed in 1872 (to be rechartered in Atlanta in the 20th century), Middle Georgia Military and Agricultural College (now Georgia Military College) was founded in 1879 in the Old State Capital building in Statehouse Square. Ten years later on the site of the Georgia Penitentiary which had burned during the Northern occupation of the city, the Georgia Normal and Industrial College (now Georgia College and State University) was founded. The state mental asylum developed into Central State Hospital which would carry a patient load of nearly 12,000 people in the early 1960s. Changes in mental health treatment have led to the slow phasing out of the hospital and many of its programs. Combined with the closing of local mills, the local economy has had to shift away from health care and manufacturing towards industries such as tourism.

With a concentration of historic structures, it's no wonder that Milledgeville has many ghosts. Kathryn Tucker Windham in her 13 Georgia Ghosts and Jeffrey, includes the story of Sam Walker, who was mayor in the 1870s, who was deemed "the meanest man in Georgia" after he contributed to the untimely death of his son. It is believed that both Walker and his son may still haunt their former home. Barbara Duffey has penned two books, Banshees, Bugles and Belles: True Ghost Stories of Georgia (1995) and Angels and Apparitions: True Ghost Stories From the South (1996) both of which document many hauntings in Milledgeville.

Following are photographs of some of the haunted locations in Milledgeville. As my research continues, these locations will be highlighted individually.

Lockerly Hall
1534 Irwinton Road

Lockerly Hall, built in 1852 by Daniel Reese Tucker and originally
called "Rose Hall." The house in now the centerpiece of Lockerly
Arboretum. The spirit of a young woman, possibly Emma Tucker, the
daughter of Daniel Reese, has been seen in the house. The grounds of
the arboretum are open to the public and the house may be toured as
well. Photograph by Lewis Powell, IV, 2010, all rights reserved.

Memory Hill Cemetery
300 West Franklin Street

The gates of Memory Hill Cemetery, Milledgeville's primary
historic burying ground, where many famous Milledgeville
citizens are interred including author Flannery O'Conner,
Congressman Carl Vinson and vaudeville magician Dixie Haygood.
Memory Hill is the site of a few mysterious graves that
may have some paranormal activity. Photograph by Lewis Powell, IV,
2010, all rights reserved.
 Old Governor's Mansion
120 South Clark Street

Built as the first official residence for the state's governor,
the Old Governor's Mansion was completed in 1839. It served
as the official governor's residence from its completion to 1868
when the capital was moved to Atlanta. The house served in a
variety of functions including the home to Georgia College presidents
until it was restored and opened as a house museum. The smell of
food cooking has been reported wafting through the basement and ground
floors while the ghost of a woman in period dress was seen in the State
Dining Room. Photograph by Lewis Powell, IV, 2010, all rights reserved.

Old State Capitol Building
201 East Greene Street

Considered one of the grandest Gothic Revival structures in the
United States, the Old State Capitol Building now serves as part
of the campus for Georgia Military College. The sound of legions
of marching spectral soldiers has been reported on the adjoining
parade grounds as well as the apparition of a Confederate sentry.
Photograph by Lewis Powell, IV, 2010, all rights reserved. 
Duffey, Barbara. Angels and Apparitions: True Ghost Stories From the South.
     Eatonton, GA: Elysian Publishing, 1996.
Duffey, Barbara. Banshees, Bugles and Belles: True Ghost Stories of Georgia.
     Berryville, VA: Rockbridge Publishing, 1995.
Mitchell, Nicole. "Georgia Penitentiary at Milledgeville." The New Georgia Encyclopedia.
     Retrieved 16 September 2010.
Payne, David H. "Central State Hospital." The New Georgia Encyclopedia.
     Retrieved 16 September 2010.
Turner, James C. "Old Governor's Mansion." The New Georgia Encyclopedia.
     Retrieved 16 September 2010.
Wilson, Robert J., III. "Milledgeville." The New Georgia Encyclopedia.
     Retrieved 16 September 2010.
Windham, Kathryn Tucker. 13 Georgia Ghosts and Jeffrey. Tuscaloosa, AL: The
     University of Alabama Press, 1973.

Wednesday, September 15, 2010

Old Heard County Jail (Photographs)

Court Square
Franklin, Georgia

Old Heard County Jail, now the Heard County Historical Center
and Museum in Franklin, Georgia. This facility was built in 1912 and
added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1981. Photograph
by Lewis Powell, IV, 2010, all rights reserved.
Side view of the Old Heard County Jail. The inmate's cells were
located on the second floor while the first floor held offices. A museum
employee reported hearing the sound of cell doors slamming shut
when she was alone in the building. Photograph by Lewis Powell, IV,
2010, all rights reserved.
The tower on the front of the Old Heard County Jail.
The gallows are located in this tower and were quite
possibly used for executions. This location was investigated
by West Georgia Paranormal Investigations and presented
in their show, Ghost Burn. Photograph by Lewis Powell,
IV, 2010, all rights reserved.
"Heard County Courthouse." Highway 27, Historic Courthouse Tour. Accessed
     14 September 2010.
West Georgia Paranormal Investigations. "Haunted Jail." Ghost Burn. Posted
     17 June 2010. Part I, Part II, Part III.

Sunday, September 12, 2010

Thomas Divide Lights

This entry has been revised and updated here. This spot is kept to preserve the comments.

Saturday, September 11, 2010

Haunted Plantations of Louisiana's River Road, Part II

Continuing the exploration of River Road…

Ormond Plantation
13786 River Road

Ormond Plantation. Photograph by Frances Benjamin Johnston
for the Historic American Buildings Survey, 1938. Courtesy of the
Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

Located near Destrehan Plantation, one of the first great plantations of River Road, Ormond Plantation dates to just after the construction of Destrehan. Ormond, like it’s sister plantation, initially was an indigo plantation, switching to sugar cane some years later. The history of Ormond, however, has been fraught with sadness from its very beginnings as three of its owners have met odd and untimely deaths. Its first owner, Pierre d’Trepagnier, who built the main house in 1790, often entertained Spanish government officials. One evening, whilst dining with his family, he was called away to meet with a supposed government official in his carriage outside. Trepagnier stepped out and was never seen again. The next owner, Colonel Richard Butler renamed the plantation after his family’s ancestral home in Ireland, Castle Ormonde. He mysteriously sold the plantation 15 years later and he and his wife died from yellow fever in Bay St. Louis.

In 1898, Ormond was purchased by State Senator Basile LaPlace, Jr. Like Trepagnier almost a hundred years earlier, LaPlace was called away from his family during dinner one evening in 1899. The following morning, his bullet-riddled body was found hanging near the front drive. According to the history on the Ormond Plantation website, LaPlace had possibly raised the ire of the local Ku Klux Klan. Some blame these three deaths on a curse placed on the plantation by the leader of an early slave uprising on the plantation that was quashed by Trepagnier. Regardless, something supposedly haunts this plantation.

Reports as early as 1880, report dark, shadow-like figures being seen on the estate. More recently, Ormond staff report a man in 19th century dress as well as a young woman in one of the upstairs rooms. Louisiana Spirits Paranormal Investigations captured an interesting video clip of a light descending the staircase.

Houmas House Plantation
40136 Louisiana Highway 942

The Houmas House. Photograph by Frances Benjamin Johnston
for the Historic American Buildings Survey, 1938. Courtesy of the
Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

In the years preceding the Civil War, Houmas House Plantation was one of the largest plantations in Louisiana and quite possibly, the South. With some 300,000 acres being worked by over 800 slaves, Houmas was the largest single economic unit in the state. The plantation was built by General Wade Hampton whose granddaughter may be the best known spirit on the plantation. The young female spirit appeared during the house’s restoration to astonished workers in 2003. The girl, wearing a blue dress descended the staircase and vanished. She has also been seen following tour groups through the house. While she may be General Hampton’s granddaughter who died—possibly of yellow fever—in 1848, she might also be the seven year old daughter of Colonel William P. Miles who owned the house later in the century. The Miles’ daughter was buried in a nearby family cemetery later was destroyed by a flood.

Visitor Information

Both plantations featured in this section are open for tours by the public. For further information, please see the following sites:

Dwyer, Jeff. Ghost Hunter’s Guide to New Orleans. Gretna, LA: Pelican
     Publishing, 2007
Louisiana Spirits Paranormal Investigations. Investigation Report for Ormond
     Plantation. Accessed 7 September 2010.
National Park Service. Houmas House. Southeastern Louisiana: A
     National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary. Accessed 6
     September 2010.
Ormond Plantation. History. Accessed 11 September 2010.

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

Oak Alley Plantation (Update)

3645 Louisiana Highway 18
Vacherie, Louisiana

I had forgotten that Oak Alley was investigated by the TAPS (The Atlantic Paranormal Society) team on the Syfy Channel’s Ghost Hunters until I happened to turn on the TV tonight for the new episode. The investigators came up with some interesting evidence. One piece of thermal imaging video shows something with a heat signature moving outside of a window. When Jason Hawes asked Grant Wilson (the main investigators) to step outside on the veranda outside of the window, nothing can be seen. Other evidence include a flashlight coming on by itself and a hit on the K2 meter in response to questions. An audio recorder also picked up the sound of footsteps.

Episode 408, “Oak Alley Plantation. Ghost Hunters. Syfy Channel.
     Originally aired 8 October 2008.

Tuesday, September 7, 2010

Haunted Plantations of Louisiana's River Road, Part I

Stretching some 70 miles from New Orleans to Baton Rouge, River Road has been a major artery in the region for centuries. Sugar barons established extensive plantations along this thoroughfare and along the banks of the nearby Mississippi River. With the cruelties of slavery and the drama of rising and falling fortunes it is no wonder that this road is lined with haunted houses. The ghosts of some of these plantations have been well documented while others haven’t. As I research these further, I will present my findings here.

Oak Alley Plantation
3645 Louisiana Highway 18
Oak Alley Plantation. Photo by Rolf Müller. Courtesy of
Oak Alley is the quintessential Southern plantation. Its main feature, an alley of 14 oaks that frame the approach to the house from the river, makes it one of the most photographed and memorable plantations in the South. The oak alley was planted some years prior to the construction of the grand colonnaded house which began construction in 1837 and was completed two years later. Jacques Telesphore Roman, for whom the house was constructed, owned the house until 1866 when it was sold and passed through the hands of a number of landowners. When Andrew and Josephine Stewart purchased the property in 1925, the house was in a state of serious decay. With the help of architect, Richard Koch, the house was returned to its former glory. It was the restoration of this plantation that started the movement to preserve other plantations in the area.

Among the shadows of the oaks and the house’s massive colonnade numerous spirits have been reported. At least two female spirits have been seen in and around the house including one that appeared in a photograph in 1987. These spirits are believed to be the wraiths of Celine Roman and her daughter, Louise. Jeff Dwyer in his 2007 Ghost Hunter’s Guide to New Orleans, describes the sound of a carriage, complete with the rattle of chains and the neighing of horses, has been heard on the drive leading to the house. Investigations by Louisiana Spirits Paranormal Investigators have produced EVPs and many recorded personal experiences.

Destrehan Plantation
13034 River Road

Destrehan Plantation. Photo by Michael Overton. Courtesy
of Wikipedia.
One of the oldest plantations on River Road, Destrehan Plantation is intimately linked to the history of the region. Its second owner, Jean Noël D’Estrehan, was one of four men selected by Thomas Jefferson to aid in the transition of the Louisiana Purchase area to American ownership and with his brother, perfected the process of granulating sugar. Legends linking the plantation with treasure buried by pirate, Jean Lafitte, led to the house’s near destruction at the hands of treasure hunters once the house was abandoned in 1959. Preservationists took over the house in 1971 and began the process of restoration.

The ghosts of Destrehan may include the spirit of Jean Lafitte, but no one is certain. A few male spirits have appeared throughout the house, but the only spirit that can be identified with certainty is that of Jean D’Estrehan, who appears with a cape. D’Estrehan, who later anglicized his name to Destrehan, wore a cape to hide the fact that he was missing an arm which was lost in a piece of farming machinery.

Nottoway Plantation
30970 Louisiana Highway 405
White Castle
Nottoway Plantation. Photo by Matt Howry. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Nottoway can boast the largest plantation house in the South at 64 rooms in the Italianate style. It was constructed in 1858 by John Hampden Randolphe and barely survived the Civil War unscathed. A Union gunboat on the river aimed its guns at the house, though when the officer in charge realized that he had once been a guest at the magnificent manse, he spared the house. The house is now a house museum and bed and breakfast.

Nottoway was investigated by Louisiana Spirits Paranormal Investigators and they apparently found very little. A few members of the team had some odd experiences which included hearing a bell and also capturing an EVP, but there seems to be a fairly low level of activity. Jeff Dwyer in Ghost Hunter’s Guide to New Orleans, tells of a phantom slave who is still working to help people out of their coaches and carriages at the driveway.

San Francisco Plantation
2646 River Road

San Francisco Plantation. Photo by Russell Lee, 1938, for the
Farm Security Administration. Courtesy of the Library of Congress,
Prints and Photographs Division.
It’s not hard to imagine that San Francisco Plantation was designed by a deranged carnival clown who delighted in whimsical architecture. The house is representative of Steamboat Gothic architecture, a style the National Park Service describes as a “potpourri of architectural designs.” The immense cost of the house’s construction in 1849, may have led to the name of the house, being a bastardization of sans saint-frusquin or “shirt off his back.”

A few deaths have occurred in this location, notably, the deaths of two of the daughters of Edmond Marmillion, the builder of San Francisco. One daughter died in infancy while the other fell down one of the house’s staircases. Jeff Dwyer reports that the International Society for Paranormal Research has investigated the house and discovered the spirit of Charles Marmillion, Edmond’s son on the first floor. Charles, a veteran of the Civil War, had possibly been injured in battle and worked hard to keep his father’s plantation together following the war. He died of some type of lung infection in 1875 and the plantation was sold a few years later.

Visitor Information
All plantations featured in this section are open for tours by the public. For further information, please see the following sites:

Destrehan Plantation. Destrehan Plantation Brochure. Accessed 6 September 2010.
Dwyer, Jeff. Ghost Hunter’s Guide to New Orleans. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing,
Hauck, Dennis William. Haunted Places: The National Directory: Ghostly Abodes,
     Sacred Sites, UFO Landings, And Other Supernatural Locations. New York:
     Penguin, 2002.
Louisiana Spirits Paranormal Investigations. Investigation Report for Oak Alley
     Plantation. Accessed 7 September 2010.
Louisiana Spirits Paranormal Investigations. Investigation Report for Oak Alley
     Plantation, Follow Up. Accessed 7 September 2010.
Louisiana Spirits Paranormal Investigations. Investigation Report for San Francisco
     Plantation. Accessed 7 September 2010.
National Park Service. Destrehan Plantation. Southeastern Louisiana: A National
     Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary. Accessed 6 September 2010.
National Park Service. Nottoway Plantation House. Southeastern Louisiana: A
     National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary. Accessed 6 September
National Park Service. Oak Alley Plantation. Southeastern Louisiana: A National
     Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary. Accessed 6 September 2010.
National Park Service. The River Road. Southeastern Louisiana: A National
     Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary. Accessed 6 September 2010.
National Park Service. San Francisco Plantation House. Southeastern Louisiana:
     A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary. Accessed 6 September

Friday, September 3, 2010

Haunted Huntsville, Alabama (The Research)

Initially, my vision for this blog was to be a blog all about ghosts, but I’m adding some entries on research. The title of this entry is not misleading. Originally, my intent for this entry was to explore the ghosts of Huntsville, Alabama and provide a short description of each as well as a citation. But, as fate would have it, that won’t be the case. So, I’m talking about Huntsville ghosts, but from the angle as to what’s available on the subject.

As I noted in the purpose statement, this blog was established to begin to fill in gaps in the study of Southern ghosts. Certainly, it’s a subject that’s been decently covered, but geographically, there are regions that lack serious study. In terms of regions, Northern Alabama (by my definition, the upper half of the state) has been covered decently and there are a few books that do cover this region, but none that so far cover specific cities. Debra Johnston’s two books on The Shoals region in the northwest corner of the state might constitute the one exception to that. Besides those, there is Jacquelyn Proctor Gray’s When Spirits Walk, which covers a number of stories from the region. The History Press has also just published a book, Haunted North Alabama by Jessica Penot last week on the region, but I have yet to obtain a copy.

This region does include the most populous urban areas in the state including Birmingham, Tuscaloosa, Gadsden and of course, Huntsville; all areas that certainly have a good deal of history, especially preserved historic areas and are most likely haunted. I’m not sure why I’ve zeroed in on Huntsville, other than the fact that it’s a city I really am not familiar with and have never visited. But, it has a long history and being one of the earliest cities in the region is most certainly haunted. The area was first settled by white men in 1805 and called Twickenham after the home of English literary giant, Alexander Pope. In 1811, the name Huntsville was chosen to honor the area’s first settler, John Hunt. The booming frontier town became the site of Alabama’s constitutional convention in 1819 and served as the new state’s capital for one legislative session until the capital was moved to Cahawba, located near the center of the state near Montgomery, the state’s current capital. The city was also an important player in the Civil War, being captured in 1862 by Union troops, only to be recaptured by Confederate forces and then reoccupied by Union troops the next year.

Following the tumult of war, Huntsville played host to textile mills and their accompanying villages of employees, but the city remained small. With the clash of powers all over the world during World War II, Huntsville’s growth exploded when it became the site of the Huntsville Arsenal. This designation brought with it munitions and chemical factories. After the war, the city became a site for missile research and the fledgling field of space exploration.

After doing a bit of reading on the history of the city I thought that finding information on the ghosts of the city would be a piece of cake. I was wrong. I searched through a handful of volumes in my personal library that I thought would possibly include stories, but found scant information. So then, I turned to the trusty (not really) internet. Of course, I took a look at the Shadowlands Alabama Haunted Places Index, which not surprisingly, had a number of listing but as a user submitted site is hardly trustworthy. But as I began to peruse the other websites that Google produced, it seemed most of them basically repeated the sites from the Shadowlands pages (sigh).

One of the sites I uncovered is a place called Helium describes itself as a “knowledge co-operative.” The site publishes articles from a variety of authors on a variety of subjects, ghosts included. In my Google search for the ghosts of Huntsville, I uncovered four articles on Helium. To me, these articles illustrate many of the issues I encounter in researching ghosts.

All the articles are titled “Ghost stories of Huntsville, AL,” but each is written by a different author. The first article (the articles are numbered on the site), by Linda S. Watts, features many more locations than any of the other articles. The second article, by M. Pereira, is the shortest and only features four locations, two of which appear to be the same location. The third article is the most interesting to me, as it is written by Rhetta Akamatsu, the author of Haunted Marietta, which was published last year. The final article, by Richard Serra, includes only a single story which has no specific location.

The first three articles are almost undistinguishable except that the first article has more locations. Most of the locations provided seem to come directly from internet sources including Shadowlands, but the Akamatsu article, however, does provide more historical information about some of the locations including the Old Dallas Mill though it does misidentify Cedarhurst Plantation as the “Carter House” (an error I’ve seen made all over the ‘net). Interestingly, none of the internet sources, including these articles, mentions the haunting of the Huntsville Depot, which appears in a few books about Southern ghosts.

I’ve begun exploring the archives of the Huntsville Times which are partially (back to 1991) online, but currently the cost per article ($2.95) is a bit much so, I’ve decided to take a research trip to the city when money and time permit. Part II of this entry will be the list if haunted places in Huntsville that I have so far.


Akamatsu, Rhetta. Ghosts of Huntsville, AL.,
     Retrieved 3 September 2010.
Gray, Jacquelyn Procter. When Spirits Walk. Bloomington,
     IN: AuthorHouse, 2006.
Huntsville, AlabamaWikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
     Retrieved 3 September 2010.
Johnston, Debra. Skeletons in the Closet: True Ghost Stories
     of The Shoals Area. Debra Johnston, 2002.
Johnston, Debra. Skeletons in the Closet: More True Ghost
     Stories of The Shoals Area. Debra Johnston, 2003.
Pereira, M. Ghosts of Huntsville, AL., Retrieved
     3 September 2010.
Serra, Richard. Ghosts of Huntsville, AL.,
     Retrieved 3 September 2010.
Watts, Linda S. Ghosts of Huntsville, AL.,
     Retrieved 3 September 2010.